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zingmagazine10 autumn 1999

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Gödel’s Theorem: Also known as the incompleteness Theorem, actually two theorems proposed by Austrian-American logician Kurt Gödel. Gödel’s First Theorem states that any consistent mathematical theory that includes counting numbers is incomplete. His Second Theorem states that such theory cannot prove its own consistency.

Sublimed: To pass directly from the solid to the vapor state. Usually by action of heat, to cause to undergo this process sometimes in both directions.

Daniel Bell
Daniel Bell was an American sociologist. According to Bell’s theory posed during the ’70s, the vital commodity of the post industrial order is information. The most important economic activities are the acquisition of data, its processing (with the aid of computers) and its interpretation by professional mediators—accountants, journalists, specialist advisors. In practical terms, this means business should give higher priority to research and development.

Alan Turing
English mathematician and cryptographer, Turing invented the Turing machine. The Turing machine was effectively the first computer—an abstract—paper exercise. A cryptographer who decoded codes and ciphers during the Second World War, he broke the famous German Enigma code and was a key player in the design and creation of “Colossus”—the world’s earliest working programmable electronic computers.


Kinetic: Of or from motion; energetic, dynamic.

Algorithm: A formula for solving a problem.

Epistemology: The branch of philosophy dealing with the study of the nature of knowledge, its origin, foundation, limits and validity.

Gottfried Willhelm von Leibniz
Leibniz (1646-1716) was a German philosopher, mathematician and statesman, regarded as one of the supreme intellects of the 17th century. In 1675, Leibniz discovered the mathematical principles of calculus, independently from the earlier
discoveries of English scientist Sir Isaac Newton. Leibniz also invented a calculating machine and is considered a pioneer in the development of mathematical logic. In Leibniz’s philosophy, the universe is composed of countless conscious centers of
spiritual force or energy known as monads.

Gesalt psychology: The theory of unitary mental organization based on the observation that perception is structural and cannot be resolved as a mere agglomeration of minute definable responses to local stimuli. Our apprehension of visual shapes, for instances, or of melodies in music, is a total and integrated response which merely analytical procedures are inadequate to describe. (Founded in 1910 by 3 German psychologists, Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Köhler.)

MC Escher
Mauritis Cornelius Escher (1898-1972) was a Dutch artist whose lithographs and
woodcuts depict imaginary metamorphoses, geometric distortions, and architectural impossibilities.

Orthogenesis: The theory that the evolution of
a species is influenced most strongly by internal factors and is not subject to the external forces
of natural selection. 2. The theory that all cultures pass through sequential periods in the same order. (Note: Teilhard)


Intuition: The act or faculty of knowing or sensing without the use of rational processes.

Neologism: A newly coined word or a new meaning for an old word. The use of new words or of new meanings for old words.

William Bateson
William Bateson (1861-1926) was a British biologist, who founded and named the field of genetics. A staunch believer in evolution, he observed that some of an organism’s distinct fears can suddenly appear or disappear from one generation to the next. Bateson set the stage for the rapid progress of genetics in the 20th century.

Somatic: Of, relating to, or affecting the body, especially as distinguished from a body part, the mind, or the environment, corporeal or physical.

Cognition: The act or faculty of knowing.