Matthew Ritchie | Terry Winters | Benjamin Weil

In Search Of The Village

Yvette Brackman

'A map of the world that does not include Utopia is not worth even glancing at, for it leaves out the one country at which Humanity is always landing.'

Oscar Wilde

'The route to community is through joint ownership of private property by an exclusive group living by its own rules.'

Urban Land Institute

Utopia is at the next intersection. At the entrance, there is a sign that reads 'NO OUTLET.' Beyond, there is a guard house and gate blocking the road. The guard asks who I am here to see and if they are expecting me. 'I just want to look around at the community. Is that all right?' 'No. This is a private community, no uninvited guests.' The guard slides the house window shut. I stand there thinking, would Robert Owen, William Morris, Saint-Simon, Ebenezer Howard, Charles Fourier, Proudhon or Ann Lee have invited me in? I look over at the guard, disgusted. He stares back. 'Move on. This is private property.' Utopia isn't private, or shouldn't be. The guard moves to open the door, 'If you don't move on right now, You will be forced to leave.'

Lost in thought, instead of the fortress before me, I imagine an open society, where everyone is a member, realizing their potential and talents while maintaining the aspirations of community--unalienated existence. In a Utopia, people make authentic experience possible through group participation in which everyone values each other equally. Everything is solar and recycled. There is no waste; all products are useful. People no longer work in factories. Manual labor is no longer necessary. There is total technological efficiency. Everyone has a skill that they contribute to the community. The community has agreed to do away with race, gender and ethnicity. Everyone is neuter, only taking on a gender in order to procreate. Private property, poverty, overpopulation, pollution and crime no longer exist--Utopia, a society where people have been able to unleash desire, offering an authentic escape from the inequities of the real world.

My reverie collapses the divergent Utopian aspirations for society that many European immigrants had when they came to the U.S. during the 19th century to establish Utopian communities across the country. Ann Lee, Ebenezer Howard, and Robert Owen are three Utopians who contributed greatly to the shaping of this country's conception of community. In the beginning of the 1800's, the United States was in the throes of a social and political revolution later described as the age of the common man. In Indiana, Robert Owen realized his vision for a new industrial society in the community of New Harmony, founding what he promised to be a worker's paradise. Following the egalitarian and communistic implications of the Christian church, over 100,000 people arrived in America from Europe, creating over 100 model communities. Ann Lee led the United Society of Believers in Christ's Second Appearing (better known as the Shakers) to the States to found the first Shaker Community that grew into 19 communities across the country with over six thousand members. Ebenezer Howard envisioned a Utopian transformation of human society that would come painlessly through urban planning alone--without revolution or authoritarian national government. His vision incorporated socialist and capitalist elements to form small cooperative interconnected communities that were contained by surrounding farms and woodlands. He realized his dream in England with the planned communities of Welwyn and Letchworth, which he called 'new towns' or 'garden cities.' His book, Garden Cities of Tomorrow profoundly influenced the growth of planned communities both in England and the United States.

Today's Utopias--extensions of the suburban dream--are Common-Interest-Developments (also known as C.I.D.s), gated, private and locked communities. Ebenezer Howard's ideas were cleverly absorbed by private developers and businessmen who have gradually become the dominant forces

in American urban planning. Bypassing governmental controls and adjusting Howard's ideas, housing developers created the modern C.I.D. Founded on property ownership and wealth, C.I.D.s offer exclusive security to those who can afford the freedom and agree to conform to the rules. In the US, these private towns have grown by more than 10% a year since 1960. Today, 12% of Americans live in them.1 The roots of the gated communities date back to early 19th century England. In New York, Gramercy Park was established as a common-interest community in 1831.

Turning away from the gate and the guard, the immediately visible landscape is composed of strip malls and shopping centers. Off the main street, formerly a post road, one can see planned common-interest communities. Having sprung up across the country in the last 30 years, 'locked' communities are as common as the utopias of the late 19th century. These ex-xurban communities are replete with private police, trash collection, gun control, recycling programs, private government, shopping plazas, day care centers and their own taxation programs. Many of them lobby for the right to waive state and federal taxes in exchange for relinquishing the community services that they do not require. Based primarily on income bracket and proximity to corporate complexes, they attract a clientele that has similar interests. Of central importance to people who settle there is that everyone has similar values and tastes.

Donald Trump wants to build a village for the rich on Governor's Island, just off Manhattan, where the US. Coast Guard is in the process of decamping. He has described the island as "great visually, great artistically, and great for security."2 An urban Utopia for the wealthy protected from the unwanted by water on all sides. This is the ideal homogenous neighborhood, where Trump can realize his vision of a city where the rich protect themselves from the poor, inhabiting a paradise of tennis courts, golfing links, swimming pools, acres of landscaped parks and security systems. On Trump's Island, he wants to realize the ultimate gated community by creating an escape, seconds from corporate Manhattan.

Gerard Blitz founded Club Med just after World War II, as a place of retreat for a war-weary populace offering friendship, sports, rest and relaxation free from the rigors of daily life. Today, Club Med is a worldwide organization offering vacationers unique, all-inclusive escapes from the stresses of daily life in some of the world's most exotic and scenic locations. The Club has grown to 113 villages in 35 countries on six continents featuring every ingredient for the perfect escape, right at your doorstep in a village designed for your enjoyment and delight. And, something extra you won't find anywhere else: "A warm feeling of community."3 Within the resort's highly controlled environment, your every need is surveyed and fulfilled. 'The 'Gentils Organisateurs' (service staff), are on hand to make certain that the 'Gentils Membres' (vacationers) are comfortably and constantly accomadated. Every fancy is satifsifed. The vision of the Club is to create a perfect environment completely isolated from the rest of the world. You can participate in a community anywhere from Bora Bora to New Caledonia. Transported out of the alienation of your everyday working life into a completely integrated village lifestlye where people live in huts and eat communally at tables for eight. Club Med offers the simplicity of the rustic village doing away with money as the form of exchange, instead, people use colored beads.

Spinning with all these variations, the guard shoves me on the shoulder. "You have to leave now."

'The number of private security guards in the United States now exceeds the number of public police officers.'

Robert Reich, US Secretary of Labor.

1McKenzie, Evan, Privatopia: Homeowner Associations and the Rise of Residential Private Government, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994) pg. 11

2James Traub, "Talk of the Town: And the Real Estate" The New Yorker, October 23, 1995, pg. 37

3Taken from Club Med Press Packet

Matthew Ritchie Text

A Light Zone Visible

direct painting synthesizes values of velocity and temperature / uneven

tensor fields are produced by simulations / a variety of pressure, vorticity,

and data / paint tracers are techniques that exist for displaying aspects

of the flow / interaction is used in real time, showing tracking and

steering solutions / models of light zones, from the optic superior to the

signal nerve / a structure concerned with visual attention, thought, and

the processing of emotion / it is called the area of stripped appearance

Viewing Transformations

geometry is complex when positioned in a painted space / its order is

mapped / the frames of reference indicate how the picture relates to a

regular grid / incremental changes can cause a matrix multiplication /

positions need to be determined / increments are provided through

rotation and extension / the differences between viewing space and

painted space / use the known relationships / points and rays mark the

spaces or transform the picture to produce simple data for an arbitrary

viewing / objectification maps more points / data pass a sample

rectangle / a ray is sent through space, illuminating an appropriate

multiple view / paintings intersect single points through parallel

ascription / some offer perspective as clarification of depth ordering,

or as sections through the world / a transferral of size with distance

Mapping

represent events optically / while some data samples, such as

temperature, pressure, or velocity, often are not manifest visually,

distinguishing points and important aspects can be rendered as

natural scenes / the aim of painting these relationships is to create

striking images between meanings / an important question in painting

analogue functions is how to map a figure of resemblance / often simple

transfer is used, for example, between black and white / mapping

temperature to a range of complex readings

Anagram Connections

random networks generate automatically / painting demonstrates

the networks / each mark sends out probes within a specific region /

the search radius then makes contact with neighboring areas / the radius

connection for each mark is found, and the number of contacts are then

calculated / pictures are based on these unions

Regions

the painted world is a wavelength of variable images in visible light /

colored filters give a completely new window on the scene / each

spectral region provides a regime, an independent observational realm /

in addition, within each spectral dimension, pictures are obtained /

in more dramatic examples, light appears to spiral out from a central

disk / the luminous arms are regions of the spectrum / evolution

produces the helical painting / pictures can change knowledge

of systems forever

Vectors

vectors as tools for visualizing multiple components / the degrees

of magnitude and direction / paintings are useful for the understanding

of multi-dimensional and dimensionless relationships / space

in three flavors / the direction of force defines the plane / the traditional

field of true-value painted functions / marks are used to plot the

gradient at every point on the visible field / the tangent has an important

emotional quality / the impact of potential geometries on the system /

painting measures the asymmetry of motion / an equation of potential

fields show the shaded trajectory of the painted image / painting

an object often reveals hidden significances and shows an image

with distinct varieties in structure / time-dependent information is

presented as a single image

Distribution Functions

effects such as transparency and reflection determine the nature

of the generating map / an approach to painting fundamentals /

closed-curve surfaces that are able to make sudden topological changes /

descriptive, dynamic, and illustrative examples are fabricated / a picture's

definition is a work in progress, presented / the paintings utilize

special densities / rendering is both gradual and catastrophic /

the implementation of painting techniques produces free-form images /

the picture is drawn from existing sources whose shapes are

transformed interactively

Moved by Guided hands

the goal of painting is to build real objects / a construction of

synthesized factual pictures that use imaginary shaping forces / painting

is a legitimate response to imposed conditions / resulting images are

governed by assembled energies and depicted spaces / the confines of

two-dimensional motion are resilient / principled pictures behave

realistically / a mass of interpenetrating figure / unformed parts apply

pressures and are subsequently assembled into compound images /

recognitions of a real world / gesture models the evidence as colliding

geometric phantoms give spirit to a work in progress

Colophon

document prepared in Quark and output on a Xerox Docutech /

drawings scanned on a Fuji Scanart / types et by Linda Josefowicz

in Franklin Gothic and News Gothic / design by Terry Winters and

Leslie Miller / production by Michael Josefowicz, Red Ink Productions /

edited by Garrett Kalleberg / published by the Press,

116 West 29th Street, New York, NY 10001 (212) 947 8346

(copyright-no key cap) 1995 Terry Winters

7

7

Matthew Ritchie

0

Please imagine that you are sitting in a classroom in Greenland, a country that has been radically changing in size and shape since the invention of standardized world maps. Gustavus Mercator's map of 1569, the first complete spherical projection on to a flat surface, and still the most used map in the world, shows Greenland as being nine times larger than South America. On the Van der Grinten projection--the Mercator map's successor--used by the National Geographical Society until 1988, Greenland is 554% larger than actual size. On the Robinson projection of the world, currently in use, it is now only 160% larger than it should be. As you look around the classroom you can see that the pale yellow walls are bare except for three objects: a four-color map of the world labeled in Swedish, using the Van der Grinten projection; a round 24-hour clock with black Arabic numerals on a white face; and a blackboard with the letters of the English alphabet in upper and lower case, neatly painted by hand in script at the top.

I

The map of space is familiar in its wild variations, maniacally divided into hundreds of different zones, classified by climate, topography & political affiliation. The ancient battlefields of 100 ideologies, 1,000 tyrants, mark the ever-changing borders of nations. It is a map of the past. Two thirds of the map is empty--water in frozen and liquid form. In these areas we have always found ourselves in transition or in stasis; space that is too fluid, or not fluid enough, so we leave it blank.

II

The map of time is completely without differentiation, divided into identical fixed moments that robotically repeat themselves over and over again. The map of space is full. The map of time is empty. The clock does not have sections for despair or love, the passions that discipline our hours. Happiness does not have it's share of time--ochre archipelagos, speckling purple-blue oceans of sorrow. Care is not etched in the dark blue districts of memory. The conical geography of time, the future unknown, the past a labyrinth of contradictions remains unmapped. Time is also both too fluid and too frozen; always moving on and always returning on itself. Faced with this contradiction, our powers of description have failed us. We map only the present; the passing seconds, minutes, hours.

III

The map of language is a tool kit, each letter having a use, a purpose. Together they are a labile map, forming to the mouth and from the mouth--so to the hand. This map is neither full nor empty, its components orbit each other. The parts are useless without the whole, but together, they are builders, workers, soldiers and propaganda-makers. Happy moons around a useful star. The maps reflect their makers. We desire space. We fear time. We are happy when we are working together, despairing when we are alone. The maps should be inextricably bound together--time is meaningless without space, language exists only in time, but they have long ago been separated by a cultural act of will. In Persia, the measurement of distance was once the 'parasang': a day's walk, at your own pace. Now, it is the mile, the same distance at any pace. But of course we know that the maps, the measurements and the mileage cannot shield us from the truth. We can always be found. Above us, inside us and around us, other, greater atlases, map and unmap us at every moment. This is Greenland's message to every border post. You are provisional, the frontier you guard can disappear at a moment's notice, on the whim of a distant and imperial cartographer.

IV

Please continue to imagine that you are still in the classroom, looking up at the ceiling. Far above you in the darkness above the atmosphere, is another map not of human devising. Set against a rigging of glittering abstractions, a fretwork of scattered memories, is a firmament of unforged angels. We have, in our usual way, named them all. A giant serpent with a lamb standing on its back meets you first. Next to them stand some other peculiar characters: a turbaned man; a crowned, seated woman; a giraffe; a naked woman in chains; a large fish; an enormous black bear; a tree with two crowns on its branches; a pair of twins; a white bull; a small, friendly dog; a mustachioed man, running to fat, dressed as if for an antique war; and a unicorn close to another, larger, less friendly dog. On the other side of the world, the cast of characters continues: a white winged horse; a fully rigged sailing ship, possibly a galleon; a peacock; a chameleon; a giant bee; a toucan, a floating triangle; a wreath, a flaming altar, a river, a cockerel, a burning cross, a phoenix, a giant sea monster, various species of fish and birds, a man with the body of a horse, a goat with the body of a fish, a leopard and a young man holding the severed head of a woman whose hair is made of snakes. In the spaces between them are still more figures, filling up the darkness, the negative space. The black constellations : the hanged man, the Golem, the pentacle, the axe, the flower and the fruit, the burning book and the shattered globe, the wish and the manticore. The shattered tower, the devil and the golden ring. They are all up there, our gods and nightmares, turning and turning as the celestial map, the astronomical clock, marks off the passing of time and the making of space.

V

Please remain seated. Look at your hands, your skin. Look closer at the ridges, the channels, the pores and scars, the landscape of experience. You are a walking continent , unfurled like a sail. As you are looking at your hands, one of your citizens, too small for your eyes, is fleeing for it's life. A brown and white egg shape with no discernible head or tail, desperately escaping across your surface, anchored only by thousands of tiny hooks. Behind it staggers it's pursuer with the eager air of a debt collector. This one resembles the insides of a human being, disemboweled, dipped in amber and then reassembled in the wrong order, six scaled legs drunkenly carrying a semi-transparent sac, where dark green and brown forms can be seen, squirming against an infinitely complex web. Bobbing on it's head, tipped like the crown of a demented potentate, rides a violet & green helical cone. A tiny, flea-like extension from the rider burrows into the yielding skin of it's victim, scrabbling and scratching. The pieces come away in a hundred bloody places, falling like autumn leaves, on to the furrowed landscape of your skin.

VI

There is an identical master map inside every cell of skin, of your entire body. But every cell looks and behaves uniquely. They are all reading different parts of the map. Deep inside you, another unknown and agile geography is constantly unfolding. Towers of gray flesh with balustrades and filaments growing from them, reach out to other towers, never quite touching. Between them, where the spokes almost touch, there is an occasional flash of luminous green light. Fevered motion surrounds the artifacts of an ancient and malevolent ceremony. Dark purple-red dome shaped lobes, glistening as they turn to conceal the soft secrets beneath . They swell, filling with blood as they pulse against the webs drifting across them in a knotted embroidery of abomination. Jet black ridged turrets of velvety smooth material, arranged in the millions inside a giant bowl , aim at a giant lens floating far above them. The lens twists softly in the air, adjusting it's shape. Around it, bridges laminated from layer upon layer of bony material, ridged and channeled, are suspended in an arched and heaving chamber.

VII

And inside every atom, another, final map , the mirror of the celestial map turning far above. At first you can see nothing, then a subtle flickering , half in, half out of existence. A sudden cooling in the firmament, as fugitive heels are snagged and angels tamed. Wings of fire are extinguished, frozen and limned in ice. From seven heavens to seven crystals. Tiled across an invisible grid, geometric shapes are laid out, iron red polyhedrons, sulfurous yellow dodecahedrons, sky blue icosahedrons, ringed with coils of gold. Hunched within each flashing polygon, a shape can dimly be made out. A two headed lion, a swan, a serpent, . A hooded hierophant and a man with the head of a lion. A creature covered in eyes, burning with a scarlet flame ; six wings beating at it's back, brandishing a flaming sword. An old man, crowned as a king, with a raven perched on his hand.

The angels sleep, geometry veiled in frozen smoke. Their outlines are blurry with nacreous light, as radiant spokes of blue and white energy flare briefly between them, forming wheels, chariots, gyroscopes of power. They burn with a heatless, silent flame, electrons skipping from ring to golden ring, as far above them, their counterparts turn time into space.

A Light Zone Visible

direct painting synthesizes values of velocity and temperature / uneven

tensor fields are produced by simulations / a variety of pressure, vorticity,

and data / paint tracers are techniques that exist for displaying aspects

of the flow / interaction is used in real time, showing tracking and

steering solutions / models of light zones, from the optic superior to the

signal nerve / a structure concerned with visual attention, thought, and

the processing of emotion / it is called the area of stripped appearance

Viewing Transformations

geometry is complex when positioned in a painted space / its order is

mapped / the frames of reference indicate how the picture relates to a

regular grid / incremental changes can cause a matrix multiplication /

positions need to be determined / increments are provided through

rotation and extension / the differences between viewing space and

painted space / use the known relationships / points and rays mark the

spaces or transform the picture to produce simple data for an arbitrary

viewing / objectification maps more points / data pass a sample

rectangle / a ray is sent through space, illuminating an appropriate

multiple view / paintings intersect single points through parallel

ascription / some offer perspective as clarification of depth ordering,

or as sections through the world / a transferral of size with distance

Mapping

represent events optically / while some data samples, such as

temperature, pressure, or velocity, often are not manifest visually,

distinguishing points and important aspects can be rendered as

natural scenes / the aim of painting these relationships is to create

striking images between meanings / an important question in painting

analogue functions is how to map a figure of resemblance / often simple

transfer is used, for example, between black and white / mapping

temperature to a range of complex readings

Anagram Connections

random networks generate automatically / painting demonstrates

the networks / each mark sends out probes within a specific region /

the search radius then makes contact with neighboring areas / the radius

connection for each mark is found, and the number of contacts are then

calculated / pictures are based on these unions

Regions

the painted world is a wavelength of variable images in visible light /

colored filters give a completely new window on the scene / each

spectral region provides a regime, an independent observational realm /

in addition, within each spectral dimension, pictures are obtained /

in more dramatic examples, light appears to spiral out from a central

disk / the luminous arms are regions of the spectrum / evolution

produces the helical painting / pictures can change knowledge

of systems forever

Vectors

vectors as tools for visualizing multiple components / the degrees

of magnitude and direction / paintings are useful for the understanding

of multi-dimensional and dimensionless relationships / space

in three flavors / the direction of force defines the plane / the traditional

field of true-value painted functions / marks are used to plot the

gradient at every point on the visible field / the tangent has an important

emotional quality / the impact of potential geometries on the system /

painting measures the asymmetry of motion / an equation of potential

fields show the shaded trajectory of the painted image / painting

an object often reveals hidden significances and shows an image

with distinct varieties in structure / time-dependent information is

presented as a single image

Distribution Functions

effects such as transparency and reflection determine the nature

of the generating map / an approach to painting fundamentals /

closed-curve surfaces that are able to make sudden topological changes /

descriptive, dynamic, and illustrative examples are fabricated / a picture's

definition is a work in progress, presented / the paintings utilize

special densities / rendering is both gradual and catastrophic /

the implementation of painting techniques produces free-form images /

the picture is drawn from existing sources whose shapes are

transformed interactively

Moved by Guided Hands

the goal of painting is to build real objects / a construction of

synthesized factual pictures that use imaginary shaping forces / painting

is a legitimate response to imposed conditions / resulting images are

governed by assembled energies and depicted spaces / the confines of

two-dimensional motion are resilient / principled pictures behave

realistically / a mass of interpenetrating figure / unformed parts apply

pressures and are subsequently assembled into compound images /

recognitions of a real world / gesture models the evidence as colliding

geometric phantoms give spirit to a work in progress

Colophon

document prepared in Quark and output on a Xerox Docutech /

drawings scanned on a Fuji Scanart / types et by Linda Josefowicz

in Franklin Gothic and News Gothic / design by Terry Winters and

Leslie Miller / production by Michael Josefowicz, Red Ink Productions /

edited by Garrett Kalleberg / published by the Press,

116 West 29th Street, New York, NY 10001 (212) 947 8346

(copyright-no key cap) 1995 Terry Winters

Vigeo World

Benjamin Weil

The recent history of humanity has demonstrated how all centralizing political movements are gradually failing to maintain a cohesion between heterogeneous groups of individuals. Federal governments around the planet are forced to give up more power in favor of local authorities; countries secede to form a mosaic of smaller entities that reflect more efficiently on local needs and to which individuals feel closer than to those large conglomerates ruling them fromr far away.

"It is no longer possible to think about these little fragments of society with concepts of institution or structure as vehiculated by three centuries of homogeneizing modernity"1

All the elements of culture, ranging from science to any form of artful expression seem to reflect upon this state of things. The multiplication of sects re-arranges the landscape of belief. It also seems like the development of the Information Society, as conveyed by the accelerating speed of dissemination plays an important role in this major mutation of the world's organization.

"Geography: (from the greek geo-graphia = the description of the earth) The science dealing with the areal differentiation of the earth's surface, as shown in the character, arrangements and interrelations over the world of such elements as climate, soil, vegetation, population, land use, industries, or states, and the unit areas formed by the complex of these individual elements" 2

Not much of the world remains to be discovered, and/or explored. All existing territories have gained recognition, and specifically so in terms of their representation in the world's atlases. Territories and populations have been described extensively, migration fluxes of all kinds and magnitude have profoundly modified the way we relate to those territories and cultures.

The whole myth of the frontier has to be re-assessed in the light of an absence of new places to discover. Geography no longer documents a phenomenon of expansion. Rather, it can only reflect the instability of the world, acknowledge the changes that result from it. This state of things most likely has an effect on the way in which we relate to evolution and progress: from a vertical model wherein progress is understood chronologically, it seems like we have shifted to a horizontal model, a one that considers all past accomplishments as an un-hierarchical set of elements to choose from and associate freely. Cultural mixes and exchanges result in new filters to comprehend our intellectual, emotional, and geographical surroundings. This in turn brings up a reflection on the prevalence of movement and exploration, as opposed to the one of discovery: hence the importance of the road movie and other forms of glorification of travel in a supposedly known environment.

The development of digital communication, and its being increasingly understood as an environment poses a whole new set of questions: are we to relate to that mental space as a physical one, and call it such name as "virtual" reality? consequently, is this a new territory to explore, and to map? or is it a map in itself? have we consequently entered a new dimension, a one of "virtual" geography?!

In its very essence, digital communication and the subsequent environment it has generated can be regarded as a mirror site, a surface of fantasy:

Its organization very much derives from structural conventions used in real space: names, addresses all evoke geographical locations. An email box, or a server is labeled by country, and one refers to someone at some place. Furthermore, given the ongoing discussion about the imperialistic domination of culture by the United States, it is interesting to point out that this is the only country that does not refer to its territorial integrity in the definition of location. Rather, the US has elected to categorize servers by nature: COMmercial, MILitary, GOVernment, non-profit ORGanization, ... very much a "we vs. them" type of vision of the world!

The open-ness of this environment is also a subject of preoccupation for a lot of - potential - users. Issues of copyright, security, or fears that this realm will all of a sudden absorb "real" experience shows how the advent of digital communication as an increasingly mainstream tool of exchange cristallizes so many ambient fears, and can therefore be stigmatized as the ultimate form of evil.

The regulation of flowing information becomes increasingly difficult, as it circulates and implements itself onto "friendly" servers that eliminate the chance for a centralized structure to enact any form of censorship over content. Anyone may "emit" in cyberspace; broadcasting in its essence is gradually and pressingly being challenged by the emergence of cybercasting, which implies a decentralized mode of communication.

In that light, digital communication can somehow understood as a mapping instrument, not unlike television, in that it relocates the experience of the world. However, it does not mean to equate real space experience: whereas television claims to be a faithful presentation of reality, digital communication is a system of representation, with a multitude of possible truths; whereas television may be understood as a form of geography, digital communication is an interzone3 .

The notion of webbing, understood as the establishement of a set of hypermedia link, is virtual geography. It creates a multitude of ways to comprehend information, as it proposes endless manners to associate fragments of information. The map is no longer a fixed collage of elements. Rather, it becomes an undefined web within which elements get to be re-assembled in endless different manners.

1 : Michel Maffesoli: "La Transfiguration du Politique", Faquelle & Grasset publishers, Paris 1992.

2 : Random House Dictionary of the English Language.

3 : as per the definition given by Anders Michelsen and Octavio Zaya's in the statement of intent for the exhibition "Interzones", to be presented at the Kunstforeningen Gl. Grand, Copenhagen, in June 1996.

vigeo world

(unfinished thoughts ...)

1McKenzie, Evan, Privatopia: Homeowner Associations and the Rise of Residential Private Government, (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994) pg. 11

2James Traub, "Talk of the Town: And the Real Estate" The New Yorker, October 23, 1995, pg. 37

3Taken from Club Med Press Packet


Matthew Ritchie | Terry Winters | Benjamin Weil